Xu Wei (徐渭, 1521-1593) was a Ming Chinese painter,
poet, calligrapher and dramatist famed for his artistic expressiveness.
His courtesy names were Wenqing (文清) and then Wenchang (文長). His
various pen names were The Mountain-man of the Heavenly Pond (天池山人
Tiānchí Shānrén), Resident of the Green Vine House (青藤居士 Qīngténg
Jūshì) and The Water and Moon of the Bureau's Farm (署田水月 Shǔtián Shuǐ
Born in Shanying
district (now Shaoxing in Zhejiang Province), Xu was raised by a single
mother who died when he was 14. At 21, he married Pan-shi (潘氏), who
died five years later. Xu attempted the civil service examinations
eight times, although he never succeeded. Nevertheless, Xu was employed
by General Hu Zongxian (胡宗憲), Supreme Commander of the
Jiangsu-Zhejiang-Fujian coastal defense against the wokou (倭寇, Japanese
After General Hu was arrested and lost his position, Xu Wei became excessively fearful of a negative fate for himself. Xu became mentally distraught at this juncture, attempting to commit suicide nine times. His mental imbalance no doubt led to his killing of his wife Zhang-shi (張氏), after he became paranoid that she was having an affair. As a result, he was jailed for seven years until his friend Zhang Yuanbian (張元忭) from the Hanlin Imperial Academy managed to free him at the age of 53. It is possible that Xu Wei suffered from Bipolar Disorder, a condition actually recognized in China at this time. Xu spent the rest of his life painting, but with little financial success. However, his paintings have been highly sought after in modern times.
Xu Wei can be
considered as the founder of modern painting in China. His painting style
influenced and inspired countless subsequent painters, such as Zhu Da (朱耷),
the Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou, and the modern masters Wu Changshuo
(吳昌碩) and Qi Baishi (齊白石), who once exclaimed in a poem that "How I wish to be born
300 years earlier so I could grind ink and prepare paper for Green Vine
(one of Xu Wei’s pen names)" (恨不生三百年前，為青藤磨墨理紙).
Xu Wei was also a poet in shi style of considerable note. Xu's
collected works in 30 chapters exists with a commentary by the late
Ming writer Yuan Hongdao (袁宏道). Yuan Hongdao and the others of his
literary movement were highly influenced by the writings of Xu.
Of the various arts Xu Wei practiced, he held his calligraphy in highest esteem. Next was his poetry. A modern typeset edition of Xu Wei's collected works, Xu Wei Ji (徐渭集), was published by the Zhonghua Publishing House in Beijing in 1983. Previously a 1600s edition of his collected works known as the Xu Wenchang Sanji (徐文長散集) was reproduced in Taiwan in 1968.