The chrysanthemum blooms in the cold autumn air and foretells the coming of winter, which symbolizes the virtue to withstand all adversities. It was the favorite flower of the great poet Tao Yuanming (陶淵明, 365-427), a towering figure in Chinese literati culture. The chrysanthemum is one of the Four Gentlemen (四君子), along with the plum, the orchid, and the bamboo.
Painted by Wang Wu (王武, 1632-1690)
Painted by Lou Shibai (娄师白, 1918-2010)